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WATER


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WATER

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Description

Physical analysis

Solids analysis

The level of suspended solids in a water sample is determined by pouring a carefully measured volume of water through a preweighed filter with a specified pore size, drying the filter to remove the water, and then weighing the filter again. The weight gain of the filter is a dry weight measure of the particulates present in the water sample expressed in units derived or calculated from the volume of water filtered (typically milligrams per liter). Suspended solids measurements are typically performed using glass fiber filter circles that need additional preparation prior to use. However, GE has developed ready-to-use 934-AH RTU glass fiber filters, which are supplied in a prewashed and preweighed
format and enable considerable time savings in the laboratory. 934-AH RTU filters also provide reproducible results and low background contamination.

What are you testing for?
    Solids, including:

  • total suspended
  • total dissolved
  • total volatile
Product

GF/C™
934-AH™
glass fiber filters

Ordering information p. 5

Characteristics and benefits
  • Conform to requirements of standard methodologies:
    GF/C for EN 872 (Fig 2); 934-AH for Standard Method 2540D
  • High loading capacity enabling filtration of very turbid samples
  • Retention of very fine particles
Product

934-AH RTU
Ordering information p. 5

Characteristics and benefits
  • Share same benefits as traditional 934-AH glass fiber filters
  • Ready-to-use format
  • Prewashed, preweighed according to 2540D
  • Each pretreated filter comes in an aluminium pan, with the filter weight clearly noted
  • Each pan has its own unique barcode

Chemical analysis

Dissolved heavy metals

Chemical analyses are commonly performed using analytic instrumentation. Filtration of water samples prior to analysis is good practice in order to remove unwanted particles from the analysis and to protect delicate instrumentation from potentially damaging compounds. Accurate analysis of heavy metals such as lead or mercury depends on not introducing any interference into the sample from consumables used in the analytical preparation process. Water samples are often high in particulate matter, which can present filtration challenges because the particulates can readily block membrane filters. Traditionally, a glass fiber pre-filter has been used to alleviate this problem. However, filters containing some types of glass fiber can introduce trace metals into the sample. To avoid potential sample contamination, GE offers a syringe filter that incorporates an effective pre-filter composed of polypropylene rather than glass fiber.
GD/XP syringe filters
GD/XP syringe filters can be used with samples that require inorganic ion analysis (e.g., trace metal analysis using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry [ICP-MS]).

What are you testing for?

Dissolved
heavy metals

Product

GD/XP syringe filters, 25 mm
(filtration in the lab); Fig 3
Ordering information p. 7

Characteristics and benefits
  • Pre-filter made of polypropylene for minimization of ion extractables
  • Integrated prefiltration with a dual-layer prefilter stack and one final 0.45 μm membrane
  • Easy filtration of hard-to-filter samples
  • Filtration of larger sample volumes compared to filters without pre-filters
Product

Polydisc GW and
Polycap GW in-line filters

(filtration in the field); Fig 4
Ordering information p. 7

Characteristics and benefits
  • Integrated prefilter
  • Easy filtration of hard-to-filter samples
  • Filtration of larger sample volumes compared to filters without pre-filters

Dissolved ions

Filters for sample preparation prior to ion chromatography testing should feature very low levels of anion leaching.

What are you testing for?

Dissolved ions

Product


Anotop™ IC
syringe filters

Characteristics and benefits
  • Contain a proprietary alumina-based Anopore™ membrane that exhibits very low levels of anion leaching (e.g., fluoride, sulfide, nitrate, nitrite) during ion chromatography (IC) testing
  • Pigment-free PP housing to eliminate sample contamination
  • Flexibility – available in either 10 mm or 25 mm diameter
  • Certified and guaranteed low levels of anion leaching

Dissolved organic carbons

Organic matter content is usually measured as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is an important component of the carbon cycle. DOC is defined as the organic matter that is able to pass through a filter, typically one with a 0.45 μm pore size. Puradisc Aqua syringe filters are specifically designed for filtration of environmental samples prior to DOC analysis.

What are you testing for?

Dissolved
organic carbons

Product


Puradisc Aqua 30
syringe filters

Characteristics and benefits
  • Contain prewashed membranes (prior to assembly) to reduce organic carbon level and ensure low background
  • Designed for aqueous samples
  • Hydrophilic cellulose acetate membrane, 30 mm diameter

HPLC, UHPLC, and other analytical techniques

What are you testing for?

Low solids content

Product


Puradisc
Ordering information p. 10

Characteristics and benefits
  • Wide range of membranes, pore sizes and diameters
  • Pre-filter: no
  • Diameter: 4, 13, 25, or 30 mm
  • Available pore sizes: 0.1, 0.2, 0.45, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 5 μm
  • Membrane materials available: Cellulose acetate, nylon, PES, PVDF, PP, PTFE , GF
Product


SPARTAN™
Ordering information p. 10

Characteristics and benefits

  • HPLC certified
  • Pre-filter: no
  • Diameter: 13 or 30 mm
  • Available pore sizes: 0.2 or 0.45 μm
  • Membrane materials available: Regenerated cellulose
What are you testing for?

Hard-to-filter samples

Product


Whatman GD/X™
Ordering information p. 10

Characteristics and benefits

  • For hard-to-filter samples
  • Pre-filter: multilayer glass filter
  • Diameter: 13 or 25 mm
  • Available pore sizes: 0.2, 0.45, 0.7, 1.0, 1.2, 1.5, 2.7, 5.0 μm
  • Membrane materials available: Cellulose acetate, nylon, PES, PVDF, PP, PTFE, RC
Product


GD/XP
Ordering information p. 10

Characteristics and benefits

  • For hard-to-filter samples where analytes of interest are inorganic ions
  • Pre-filter: Multilayer polypropylene
  • Diameter: 25 mm
  • Available pore sizes: 0.45 μm
  • Membrane materials available: Nylon, PES, PVDF, PP, PTFE
What are you testing for?

HPLC/GC autosamplers

Product


Mini-UniPrep™
Ordering information p. 11

Characteristics and benefits

  • All-in-one filter and PLASTIC autosampler vial
  • Pre-filter: no
  • Dimensions: Once compressed equivalent to 12 mm × 32 mm vial
  • Available pore sizes: 0.2 or 0.45 μm
  • Membrane materials available: PTFE, RC, Nylon, PVDF, PES, PP, GMF
Product


Mini-UniPrep G2
Ordering information p. 11

Characteristics and benefits

  • All-in-one filter and GLASS autosampler vial
  • Pre-filter: no
  • Dimensions: Once compressed equivalent to 12 mm × 32 mm vial
  • Available pore sizes: 0.2 or 0.45 μm
  • Membrane materials available: PTFE, Nylon, PVDF, PP, GMF, RC

RC = regenerated cellulose, PVDF = polyvinylidene difluoride, PTFE = polytetrafluoroethylene, PP = polypropylene, PES = polyethersulfone, GMF = glass microfiber filter, GF = glass fiber, CA = cellulose acetate

Regenerated cellulose membranes

Suitable for filtration of both aqueous and organic samples. We offer a range of filters for sample preparation for commonly used analytical techniques in water monitoring such as:

  • HPLC or UHPLC
  • Continuous flow analysis
  • Gas chromatography (GC)

Microbiological analysis

Bacterial count and/or detection
MBS I system and membranes

The MBS I filtration system is designed for laboratories that handle high numbers of samples for microbiological quality control.

Membranes

We provide a wide and versatile range of filtration membranes that deliver high-quality performance consistently. The appropriate membrane filter choice will depend on the methodology being followed. ME and Microplus membranes are sterile and individually packed.

Membrane

material

Cellulose mixed ester High-flux cellulose nitrate Nylon (polyamide) Polycarbonate
Product name ME MicroPlus NL Nuclepore™
Color White, black or green White or black White White or black
Pore size 0.2 μm/0.45 μm/

0.6 μm/0.8 μm

0.45 μm 0.2 μm/0.45 μm 0.2 μm/0.4 μm

(and other pore sizes)

Application

examples

Enterococcus, E. coli, Clostridia, Fecal coliforms, Staphyloccus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, etc Legionella Legionella
Filtration considerations

Microorganisms in a water sample are collected using a microfiltration membrane filter. The membrane can then be transferred onto a microbiological culture medium for further identification and/or quantification of Microorganisms.
Membrane filtration methods are commonly used for the detection of microorganisms such as E. coli, Clostridia, fecal coliforms, Legionella, Staphylococci, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These methods involve the use of membrane filters and filtration manifolds.

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